At Purohit Hospital, Kamothe every patient is screened for glaucoma as a part of routine eye examination. Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases in which the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure) rises, gradually damaging or weakening the optic nerve. The optic nerve is the nerve responsible for vision. The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. It transmits sensory information for vision in the form of electrical impulses from eye. Thus, weakened optic nerve would lead to gradual loss of field of vision and sometimes total blindness if not detected and controlled early.Elevated eye pressure is due to a build up of fluid called aqueous humor. The fluid is produced inside the eye and normally drains out through a tissue called trabecular meshwork. When this fluid is over produced or the drainage system does not work properly, the pressure of the eye increases.

Glaucoma tends to run in families, so it is advisable to get yourself checked from an Ophthalmologist if you have a family history of glaucoma.Many forms of glaucoma have no warning signs or no symptoms in the early phase. The effect is so gradual that you may not notice a change in the vision until the condition is at an advanced stage. Because vision loss due to glaucoma cannot be recovered, it is important to have regular eye exams that includes measurements of your eye pressure, so a diagnosis can be made in early stages and treated appropriately. If glaucoma is recognized early, vision loss can be slowed. Glaucoma cannot be cured only controlled. If you have glaucoma you will generally need treatment for the rest of your life. Periodic eye checkup is mandatory for someone who has been diagnosed with glaucoma.

Types of Glaucoma

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)- This is the most common type of glaucoma. The eye does not drain the fluid as well as it should, as a result eye pressure builds and starts to damage the optic nerve. This type of glaucoma is painless and causes no vision changes in the early stages. In some patients, IOP is normal or within the average range, but optic nerve damage and visual field loss typical of glaucoma are present. This is called as Normal Tension Glaucoma. These patients have a higher incidence of vasospastic diseases (eg: migraine, Raynauds syndrome) than the general population, suggesting that a vascular disorder compromising blood flow to the optic nerve may play a role. This type of glaucoma responds well to treatment with antiglaucoma eye drops. If they fail, surgery to reduce eye pressure may be necessary

Angle closure glaucoma- Also called as closed angle glaucoma as the space between the iris and cornea is too narrow. As a result drainage of aqueous humor is affected. This can cause a sudden build up of pressure in the eye. An acute angle closure attack may present with decreased vision, severe eye ache, haloes around lights, headache, nausea and/or vomiting. The initial treatment is IOP reduction with medical treatment and laser (peripheral iridotomy). If these fail a surgery might be necessary.

Congenital glaucoma- This type occurs at or soon after birth. The clinical features are enlargement of the eyes, watering, unusual sensitivity to light or cloudiness/haziness of black of the eye.

Secondary glaucoma the pressure of the eye rises because of the conditions like eye surgery, injuries, inflammation, advanced cataracts, tumors.

Glaucoma Care